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sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles

Time:2015/11/27 2:46:01

Structure of the bovine antimicrobial peptide indolicidin bound to dodecylphosphocholine and sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles

Indolicidin is a cationic, 13-residue antimicrobial peptide (ILPWKWPWWPWRR-NH(2)) which is unusually rich in tryptophan and proline. Its antimicrobial action involves the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane. Fluorescence and circular dichroism spectra demonstrated the structural similarity of indolicidin in complexes with large unilamellar phospolipid vesicles and with detergent micelles. The structure of indolicidin bound to zwitterionic dodecylphosphocholine (DPC) and anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles was determined using NMR methods and shown to represent a unique membrane-associated peptide structure. The backbone structure in DPC, well defined between residues 3 and 11, was extended, with two half-turns at residues Lys-5 and Trp-8. The backbone structure in SDS, well defined between residues 5 and 11, was also extended, but lacked the bend in the C-terminal half. Indolicidin in complexes with DPC had a central hydrophobic core composed of proline and tryptophan, which was bracketed by positively charged regions near the peptide termini. The tryptophan side chains, with one exception, folded flat against the peptide backbone, thus giving the molecule a wedge shape. Indolicidin in complexes with SDS had an arrangement of hydrophobic and cationic regions similar to that found in the presence of DPC. The tryptophan side chains were less well defined than for indolicidin in DPC and extended away from the peptide backbone. The preferred location of indolicidin in DPC micelles and lipid bilayers, analyzed using spin-label probes, was at the membrane interface.

Renaturation of enzymes after polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate
A number of enzymes, including amylases, dehydrogenases, and proteases, were shown to be renaturable after polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate. Enzyme activity was detected in situ by action on substrates introduced into the gel and subsequent staining of either the product or unreacted substrate. This technique combines the advantage of enzyme identification with the resolution and molecular weight dependence of gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate. Enzymes appeared to recover activity as soon as the detergent diffused out of the gel. Most monomeric enzymes could be renatured even after disruption of their disulfide bonds, but several proteases, including trypsin, could not. Oligomeric enzymes composed of identical subunits were poorly renaturable. Renatured enzymes were retained in gels after electrophoresis longer than native enzymes which had been subjected to electrophoresis in the absence of detergent. Re-electrophoresis of the renatured enzymes showed that part of the retained activity was physically anchored to the gel, possibly by the folding of polypeptide aroung the gel matrix as the enzymes were renatured.